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54 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

 54 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

The Sector as a Whole

The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector comprises establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services.

This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services.

541 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

 541 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

Industries in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector group establishments engaged in processes where human capital is the major input. These establishments make available the knowledge and skills of their employees, often on an assignment basis, where an individual or team is responsible for the delivery of services to the client. The individual industries of this subsector are defined on the basis of the particular expertise and training of the services provider.

The distinguishing feature of the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector is the fact that most of the industries grouped in it have production processes that are almost wholly dependent on worker skills. In most of these industries, equipment and materials are not of major importance, unlike health care, for example, where "high tech" machines and materials are important collaborating inputs to labor skills in the production of health care. Thus, the establishments classified in this subsector sell expertise. Much of the expertise requires degrees, though not in every case.

 5411 Legal Services

 54111 Offices of Lawyers

See industry description for 541110 below.

 541110 Offices of Lawyers

This industry comprises offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys (i.e., counselors-at-law) primarily engaged in the practice of law. Establishments in this industry may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law.

Cross-References. Establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers or attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services are classified in Industry 54119, Other Legal Services.
No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
5411105411108111Attorneys' offices
5411105411108111Attorneys' private practices
5411105411108111Barristers' offices
5411105411108111Barristers' private practices
5411105411108111Corporate law offices
5411105411108111Counselors' at law offices
5411105411108111Counselors' at law private practices
5411105411108111Criminal law offices
5411105411108111Estate law offices
5411105411108111Family law offices
5411105411108111Law firms
5411105411108111Law offices
5411105411108111Law practices
5411105411108111Lawyers' offices
5411105411108111Lawyers' private practices
5411105411108111Legal aid services
5411105411108111Patent attorneys' offices
5411105411108111Patent attorneys' private practices
5411105411108111Real estate law offices
5411105411108111Solicitors' offices, private
5411105411108111Solicitors' private practices
5411105411108111Tax law attorneys' offices
5411105411108111Tax law attorneys' private practices


 54112 Offices of Notaries

See industry description for 541120 below.

 541120 Offices of Notaries

This industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in drafting, approving, and executing legal documents, such as real estate transactions, wills, and contracts; and in receiving, indexing, and storing such documents.

Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers; and
  • Establishments of notaries public engaged in activities, such as administering oaths and taking affidavits and depositions, witnessing and certifying signatures on documents, but not empowered to draw and approve legal documents and contracts, are classified in U.S. Industry 541199, All Other Legal Services.

     54119 Other Legal Services

    This industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers; and
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers, attorneys, and paralegals) primarily engaged in providing arbitration and conciliation services are classified in Industry 541990, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.

     541191 Title Abstract and Settlement Offices

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in one or more of the following activities: (1) researching public land records to gather information relating to real estate titles; (2) preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; (3) conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and (4) filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate. Real estate settlement offices, title abstract companies, and title search companies are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5411915411916541Settlement offices, real estate
    5411915411916541Title abstract companies, real estate
    5411915411916541Title companies, real estate
    5411915411916541Title search companies, real estate


     541199 All Other Legal Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except offices of lawyers and attorneys, settlement offices, and title abstract offices). These establishments are primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments of lawyers and attorneys primarily engaged in the practice of law are classified in Industry 541110, Offices of Lawyers;
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in researching public land records for ownership or title; preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and/or filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate are classified in U.S. Industry 541191, Title Abstract and Settlement Offices; and
  • Establishments (except offices of lawyers, attorneys, and paralegals) primarily engaged in providing arbitration and conciliation services are classified in Industry 541990, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5411995411997389Notary public services
    5411995411997389Notary publics' private practices
    5411995411997389Paralegal services
    5411995411997389Patent agent services (i.e., patent filing and searching services)
    5411995411997389Process server services
    5411995411997389Process serving services


     5412 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services

     54121 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services, such as auditing of accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, bookkeeping, and billing.

     541211 Offices of Certified Public Accountants

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments of accountants that are certified to audit the accounting records of public and private organizations and to attest to compliance with generally accepted accounting practices. Offices of certified public accountants (CPAs) may provide one or more of the following accounting services: (1) auditing financial statements; (2) designing accounting systems; (3) preparing financial statements; (4) developing budgets; and (5) providing advice on matters related to accounting. These establishments may also provide related services, such as bookkeeping, tax return preparation, and payroll processing.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5412115412118721Accountants' (i.e., CPAs) offices, certified public
    5412115412118721Accountants' (i.e., CPAs) private practices, certified public
    5412115412118721Accounting (i.e., CPAs) services, certified public
    5412115412118721Auditing accountants' (i.e., CPAs) offices
    5412115412118721Auditing accountants' (i.e., CPAs) private practices
    5412115412118721Auditing services (i.e., CPA services), accounts
    5412115412118721Auditors' (i.e., CPAs) offices, accounts
    5412115412118721Auditors' (i.e., CPAs) private practices, accounts
    5412115412118721Certified accountants' offices
    5412115412118721Certified public accountants' (CPAs) offices
    5412115412118721CPAs' (certified public accountants) offices
    5412115412118721Public accountants' (CPAs) offices, certified
    5412115412118721Public accountants' (CPAs) private practices, certified


     541213 Tax Preparation Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing tax return preparation services without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, billing, or payroll processing services. Basic knowledge of tax law and filing requirements is required.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing payroll services along with tax return preparation services are classified in U.S. Industry 541214, Payroll Services;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services along with tax return preparation services are classified in U.S. Industry 541219, Other Accounting Services; and
  • Establishments providing computer data processing services at their own facility for others are classified in Industry 518210, Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5412135412137291Income tax compilation services
    5412135412137291Income tax return preparation services
    5412135412137291Tax return preparation services


     541214 Payroll Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in the following without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services: (1) collecting information on hours worked, pay rates, deductions, and other payroll-related data from their clients and (2) using that information to generate paychecks, payroll reports, and tax filings. These establishments may use data processing and tabulating techniques as part of providing their services.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing tax return preparation services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541213, Tax Preparation Services; and
  • Establishments of non-CPAs providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services along with payroll services are classified in U.S. Industry 541219, Other Accounting Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5412145412148721Payroll processing services
    5412145412147819Talent payment services


     541219 Other Accounting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing accounting services (except tax return preparation services only or payroll services only). These establishments may also provide tax return preparation or payroll services. Accountant (except CPA) offices, bookkeeper offices, and billing offices are included in this industry.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments of CPAs are classified in U.S. Industry 541211, Offices of Certified Public Accountants;
  • Establishments of non-CPAs engaged in providing tax return preparation services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541213, Tax Preparation Services; and
  • Establishments of non-CPAs engaged in providing payroll services only are classified in U.S. Industry 541214, Payroll Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5412195412198721Accountants' (except CPAs) offices
    5412195412198721Accountants' (except CPAs) private practices
    5412195412198721Accounting services (except CPAs)
    5412195412198721Billing services
    5412195412198721Bookkeepers' offices
    5412195412198721Bookkeepers' private practices
    5412195412198721Bookkeeping services
    5412195412198721Public accountants' (except CPAs) offices
    5412195412198721Public accountants' (except CPAs) private practices


     5413 Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services

     54131 Architectural Services

    See industry description for 541310 below.

     541310 Architectural Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing residential, institutional, leisure, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures by applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning regulations, building codes, and building materials.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413105413108712Architects' (except landscape) offices
    5413105413108712Architects' (except landscape) private practices
    5413105413108712Architectural (except landscape) consultants' offices
    5413105413108712Architectural (except landscape) design services
    5413105413108712Architectural (except landscape) services
    5413105413108712Building architectural design services


     54132 Landscape Architectural Services

    See industry description for 541320 below.

     541320 Landscape Architectural Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing the development of land areas for projects, such as parks and other recreational areas; airports; highways; hospitals; schools; land subdivisions; and commercial, industrial, and residential areas, by applying knowledge of land characteristics, location of buildings and structures, use of land areas, and design of landscape projects.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in providing landscape care and maintenance services and/or installing trees, shrubs, plants, lawns, or gardens along with the design of landscape plans are classified in Industry 561730, Landscaping Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413205413200781Architects' offices, landscape
    5413205413200781Architects' private practices, landscape
    5413205413200781Architectural services, landscape
    5413205413208748City planning services
    5413205413200781Garden planning services
    5413205413200781Golf course design services
    5413205413208748Industrial land use planning services
    5413205413208748Land use design services
    5413205413208748Land use planning services
    5413205413200781Landscape architects' offices
    5413205413200781Landscape architects' private practices
    5413205413200781Landscape architectural services
    5413205413200781Landscape consulting services
    5413205413200781Landscape design services
    5413205413200781Landscape planning services
    5413205413200781Ski area design services
    5413205413208748Ski area planning services
    5413205413208748Town planners' offices
    5413205413208748Town planning services
    5413205413208748Urban planners' offices
    5413205413208748Urban planning services


     54133 Engineering Services

    See industry description for 541330 below.

     541330 Engineering Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. The assignments undertaken by these establishments may involve any of the following activities: provision of advice, preparation of feasibility studies, preparation of preliminary and final plans and designs, provision of technical services during the construction or installation phase, inspection and evaluation of engineering projects, and related services.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    • Planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies--are classified in U.S. Industry 541512, Computer Systems Design Services;
    • Performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor,--are classified in Industry 541370, Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services;
    • Gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data--are classified in Industry 541360, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services;
    • Creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of products--are classified in Industry 541420, Industrial Design Services;
    • Providing advice and assistance to others on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials-- are classified in Industry 541620, Environmental Consulting Services; and
    • Both the design and construction of buildings, highways, and other structures or in managing construction projects--are classified in Sector 23, Construction, according to the type of project.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413305413308711Acoustical engineering consulting services
    5413305413308711Acoustical system engineering design services
    5413305413308711Boat engineering design services
    5413305413308711Chemical engineering services
    5413305413308711Civil engineering services
    5413305413308711Combustion engineering consulting services
    5413305413308711Construction engineering services
    5413305413308711Consulting engineers' offices
    5413305413308711Consulting engineers' private practices
    5413305413308711Electrical engineering services
    5413305413308711Engineering consulting services
    5413305413308711Engineering design services
    5413305413308711Engineering services
    5413305413308711Engineers' offices
    5413305413308711Engineers' private practices
    5413305413308711Environmental engineering services
    5413305413308711Erosion control engineering services
    5413305413308711Geological engineering services
    5413305413308711Geophysical engineering services
    5413305413308711Heating engineering consulting services
    5413305413308711Industrial engineering services
    5413305413308711Logging engineering services
    5413305413308711Marine engineering services
    5413305413308711Mechanical engineering services
    5413305413308711Mining engineering services
    5413305413308711Petroleum engineering services
    5413305413308748Traffic engineering consulting services


     54134 Drafting Services

    See industry description for 541340 below.

     541340 Drafting Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413405413407389Blueprint drafting services
    5413405413407389Drafting services
    5413405413407389Draftsmen's offices


     54135 Building Inspection Services

    See industry description for 541350 below.

     541350 Building Inspection Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing building inspection services. These establishments typically evaluate all aspects of the building structure and component systems and prepare a report on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions. Building inspection bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413505413507389Building inspection bureaus
    5413505413507389Building inspection services
    5413505413507389Home inspection services
    5413505413507389Inspection bureaus, building
    5413505413507389Inspection services, building or home
    5413505413507389Prepurchase home inspection services


     54136 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services

    See industry description for 541360 below.

     541360 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data. Establishments in this industry often specialize in locating and measuring the extent of subsurface resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, but they may also conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Establishments in this industry use a variety of surveying techniques depending on the purpose of the survey, including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in taking core samples, drilling test wells, or other mine development activities (except geophysical surveying and mapping) on a contract basis for others are classified in Industry 21311, Support Activities for Mining.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    541360541360 Aerial geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Electrical geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Electromagnetic geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Geological surveying services
    541360541360 Geophysical mapping services
    541360541360 Geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Gravity geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Magnetic geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Mapping services, geophysical
    541360541360 Radioactive geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Remote sensing geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Seismic geophysical surveying services
    541360541360 Surveying services, geophysical


     54137 Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services

    See industry description for 541370 below.

     541370 Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor. These services may include surveying and mapping of areas above or below the surface of the earth, such as the creation of view easements or segregating rights in parcels of land by creating underground utility easements.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413705413708713Aerial surveying (except geophysical) services
    5413705413708713Cadastral surveying services
    5413705413708713Cartographic surveying services
    5413705413708713Geodetic surveying services
    5413705413708713Geographic information system (GIS) base mapping services
    5413705413708713Geospatial mapping services
    5413705413708713Hydrographic mapping services
    5413705413708713Hydrographic surveying services
    5413705413708713Land surveying services
    5413705413708713Mapping (except geophysical) services
    5413705413707389Photogrammetric mapping services
    5413705413708713Surveying and mapping services (except geophysical)
    5413705413707389Topographic mapping services
    5413705413707389Topographic surveying services


     54138 Testing Laboratories

    See industry description for 541380 below.

     541380 Testing Laboratories

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5413805413808734Acoustics testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Assaying services
    5413805413808734Automobile proving and testing grounds
    5413805413808734Biological (except medical, veterinary) testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Calibration and certification testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Electrical testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Electronic testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Environmental testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Film badge testing (i.e., radiation testing) laboratories or services
    5413805413806411Fire insurance underwriters' laboratories
    5413805413808734Food testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Forensic (except medical) laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Geotechnical testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Hydrostatic testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Industrial testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Laboratory testing (except medical, veterinary) services
    5413805413808734Mechanical testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Metallurgical testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Non-destructive testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Pollution testing (except automotive emissions testing) services
    5413805413808734Product testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Radiation dosimetry (i.e., radiation testing) laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Radiation testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Radiographic testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Radiographing welded joints on pipes and fittings
    5413805413808734Radiography inspection services
    5413805413808734Radon testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Seed testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Soil testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Testing laboratories (except medical, veterinary)
    5413805413808734Thermal testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734Vibration testing laboratories or services
    5413805413808734X-ray inspection services


     5414 Specialized Design Services

    This industry group comprises establishments providing specialized design services (except architectural, engineering, and computer systems design).

     54141 Interior Design Services

    See industry description for 541410 below.

     541410 Interior Design Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and administering projects in interior spaces to meet the physical and aesthetic needs of people using them, taking into consideration building codes, health and safety regulations, traffic patterns and floor planning, mechanical and electrical needs, and interior fittings and furniture. Interior designers and interior design consultants work in areas, such as hospitality design, health care design, institutional design, commercial and corporate design, and residential design. This industry also includes interior decorating consultants engaged exclusively in providing aesthetic services associated with interior spaces.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5414105414107389Decorating consulting services, interior
    5414105414107389Interior decorating consultant services
    5414105414107389Interior decorating consulting services
    5414105414107389Interior design consulting services
    5414105414107389Interior design services
    5414105414107389Interior designer services


     54142 Industrial Design Services

    See industry description for 541420 below.

     541420 Industrial Design Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of their products. These services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of the product, taking into consideration human characteristics and needs, safety, market appeal, and efficiency in production, distribution, use, and maintenance. Establishments providing automobile or furniture industrial design services or industrial design consulting services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5414205414207389Automobile industrial design services
    5414205414207389Furniture design services
    5414205414207389Handtool industrial design services
    5414205414207389Industrial design consulting services
    5414205414207389Industrial design services
    5414205414207389Packaging industrial design services
    5414205414207389Tool industrial design services


     54143 Graphic Design Services

    See industry description for 541430 below.

     541430 Graphic Design Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and managing the production of visual communication in order to convey specific messages or concepts, clarify complex information, or project visual identities. These services can include the design of printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, and corporate identification (logos). This industry also includes commercial artists engaged exclusively in generating drawings and illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in creating and/or placing public display advertising material are classified in Industry 541850, Display Advertising; and
  • Independent artists primarily engaged in creating and selling visual artwork for noncommercial use and independent cartoonists are classified in Industry 711510, Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5414305414307336Art services, commercial
    5414305414307336Art services, graphic
    5414305414307336Art studios, commercial
    5414305414307336Artists, independent commercial
    5414305414307336Artists, independent graphic
    5414305414308099Artists, independent medical
    5414305414307336Commercial art services
    5414305414307336Commercial artists, independent
    5414305414307336Commercial illustration services
    5414305414307336Commercial illustrators, independent
    5414305414307336Communication design services, visual
    5414305414307336Corporate identification (i.e., logo) design services
    5414305414307336Graphic art and related design services
    5414305414307336Graphic artists, independent
    5414305414307336Graphic design services
    5414305414307336Illustrators, independent commercial
    5414305414308099Medical art services
    5414305414308099Medical artists, independent
    5414305414308099Medical illustration services
    5414305414308099Medical illustrators, independent
    5414305414307336Silk screen design services
    5414305414307336Studios, commercial art


     54149 Other Specialized Design Services

    See industry description for 541490 below.

     541490 Other Specialized Design Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing professional design services (except architectural, landscape architecture, engineering, interior, industrial, graphic, and computer system design).

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5414905414907389Clothing design services
    5414905414907389Costume design services (except independent theatrical costume designers)
    5414905414907389Fashion design services
    5414905414907389Fashion designer services
    5414905414907389Float design services
    5414905414907389Fur design services
    5414905414907389Jewelry design services
    5414905414907389Shoe design services
    5414905414907389Textile design services


     5415 Computer Systems Design and Related Services

    See industry description for 54151 below.

     54151 Computer Systems Design and Related Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing expertise in the field of information technologies through one or more of the following activities: (1) writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer; (2) planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies; (3) on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities; and (4) other professional and technical computer-related advice and services.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

     541511 Custom Computer Programming Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5415115415117371Applications software programming services, custom computer
    5415115415117371Computer program or software development, custom
    5415115415117371Computer programming services, custom
    5415115415117371Computer software analysis and design services, custom
    5415115415117371Computer software programming services, custom
    5415115415117371Computer software support services, custom
    5415115415117371Programming services, custom computer
    5415115415117371Software analysis and design services, custom computer
    5415115415117371Software programming services, custom computer
    5415115415117371WEB (i.e., internet) page design services, custom


     541512 Computer Systems Design Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies. The hardware and software components of the system may be provided by this establishment or company as part of integrated services or may be provided by third parties or vendors. These establishments often install the system and train and support users of the system.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5415125415127373CAD (computer-aided design) systems integration design services
    5415125415127373CAE (computer-aided engineering) systems integration design services
    5415125415127373CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) systems integration design services
    5415125415127379Computer hardware consulting services or consultants
    5415125415127379Computer software consulting services or consultants
    5415125415127373Computer systems integration analysis and design services
    5415125415127379Computer systems integration design consulting services
    5415125415127373Computer systems integrator services
    5415125415127373Computer-aided design (CAD) systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Information management computer systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Local area network (LAN) computer systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Network systems integration design services, computer
    5415125415127373Office automation computer systems integration design services
    5415125415127373Systems integration design consulting services, computer
    5415125415127373Systems integration design services, computer


     541513 Computer Facilities Management Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities. Establishments providing computer systems or data processing facilities support services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in providing computer data processing services at their own facility for others are classified in Industry 518210, Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5415135415137376Computer systems facilities (i.e., clients' facilities) management and operation
    5415135415137376Data processing facilities (i.e., clients' facilities) management and operation s
    5415135415137376Facilities (i.e., clients' facilities) management and operation services, compute
    5415135415137376Facilities (i.e., clients' facilities) support services, computer systems or data


     541519 Other Computer Related Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing computer related services (except custom programming, systems integration design, and facilities management services). Establishments providing computer disaster recovery services or software installation services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5415195415197379Computer disaster recovery services
    5415195415197379Software installation services, computer


     5416 Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services

     54161 Management Consulting Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on management issues, such as strategic and organizational planning; financial planning and budgeting; marketing objectives and policies; human resource policies, practices, and planning; production scheduling; and control planning.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, are classified in Industry 561110, Office Administrative Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise (except government establishments) are classified in Industry 55111, Management of Companies and Enterprises;
  • Government establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in professional and management development training are classified in Industry 611430, Professional and Management Development Training;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in listing employment vacancies and in selecting, referring, and placing applicants in employment are classified in Industry 561310, Employment Placement Agencies;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in developing and implementing public relations plans are classified in Industry 541820, Public Relations Agencies;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in developing and conducting marketing research or public opinion polling are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing industrial processes and systems are classified in Industry 541330, Engineering Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems are classified in Industry 54151, Computer Systems Design and Related Services; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing financial investment advice services are classified in Industry 523930, Investment Advice.

     541611 Administrative Management and General Management Consulting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on administrative management issues, such as financial planning and budgeting, equity and asset management, records management, office planning, strategic and organizational planning, site selection, new business startup, and business process improvement. This industry also includes establishments of general management consultants that provide a full range of administrative; human resource; marketing; process, physical distribution, and logistics; or other management consulting services to clients.

    Cross-References.

  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, are classified in Industry 561110, Office Administrative Services;
  • Establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise (except government establishments) are classified in U.S. Industry 551114, Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices;
  • Government establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration; and
  • Establishments primarily engaged in providing investment advice are classified in Industry 523930, Investment Advice.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416115416118742Administrative management consulting services
    5416115416118742Business management consulting services
    5416115416118742Business start-up consulting services
    5416115416118742Financial management consulting (except investment advice) services
    5416115416118742General management consulting services
    5416115416118742Medical office management consulting services or consultants
    5416115416118742Records management consulting services
    5416115416118742Reorganizational consulting services
    5416115416118742Site location consulting services
    5416115416118742Site selection consulting services
    5416115416118742Strategic planning consulting services


     541612 Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in one or more of the following areas: (1) human resource and personnel policies, practices, and procedures; (2) employee benefits planning, communication, and administration; (3) compensation systems planning; (4) wage and salary administration; and (5) executive search and recruitment.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416125416128999Actuarial consulting services
    5416125416128742Benefit consulting services
    5416125416128742Compensation consulting services
    5416125416128742Compensation planning services
    5416125416128742Employee assessment consulting services
    5416125416128742Employee benefit consulting services
    5416125416128742Employee compensation consulting services
    5416125416127361Executive placement consulting services
    5416125416127361Executive search consulting services
    5416125416128742Human resource consulting services
    5416125416128742Labor relations consulting services
    5416125416128742Organization development consulting services
    5416125416128999Outplacement consulting services
    5416125416128742Personnel management consulting services


     541613 Marketing Consulting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on marketing issues, such as developing marketing objectives and policies, sales forecasting, new product developing and pricing, licensing and franchise planning, and marketing planning and strategy.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416135416138742Customer service management consulting services
    5416135416138742Marketing consulting services
    5416135416138742Marketing management consulting services
    5416135416138742New product development consulting services
    5416135416138742Sales management consulting services


     541614 Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in areas, such as: (1) manufacturing operations improvement; (2) productivity improvement; (3) production planning and control; (4) quality assurance and quality control; (5) inventory management; (6) distribution networks; (7) warehouse use, operations, and utilization; (8) transportation and shipment of goods and materials; and (9) materials management and handling.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416145416144731Customs consulting services
    5416145416148742Efficiency management (i.e., efficiency expert) consulting services
    5416145416144731Freight rate auditor services
    5416145416144731Freight rate consulting services
    5416145416144731Freight traffic consulting services
    5416145416148742Inventory planning and control management consulting services
    5416145416148742Logistics management consulting services
    5416145416148742Manufacturing management consulting services
    5416145416148742Manufacturing operations improvement consulting services
    5416145416148742Materials management consulting services
    5416145416148742Operations research consulting services
    5416145416148742Physical distribution consulting services
    5416145416148742Production planning and control consulting services
    5416145416148742Productivity improvement consulting services
    5416145416144731Tariff rate consulting services
    5416145416144731Tariff rate information services
    5416145416148742Transportation management consulting services


     541618 Other Management Consulting Services

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing management consulting services (except administrative and general management consulting; human resources consulting; marketing consulting; or process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting). Establishments providing telecommunications or utilities management consulting services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416185416188748Telecommunications management consulting services
    5416185416188748Utilities management consulting services


     54162 Environmental Consulting Services

    See industry description for 541620 below.

     541620 Environmental Consulting Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials. These establishments identify problems (e.g., inspect buildings for hazardous materials), measure and evaluate risks, and recommend solutions. They employ a multidisciplined staff of scientists, engineers, and other technicians with expertise in areas, such as air and water quality, asbestos contamination, remediation, and environmental law. Establishments providing sanitation or site remediation consulting services are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416205416208748Environmental consulting services
    5416205416208999Sanitation consulting services
    5416205416208748Site remediation consulting services


     54169 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services

    See industry description for 541690 below.

     541690 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental).

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in environmental consulting are classified in Industry 541620, Environmental Consulting Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5416905416908748Agricultural consulting services
    5416905416908748Agrology consulting services
    5416905416908748Agronomy consulting services
    5416905416908748Biological consulting services
    5416905416908999Chemical consulting services
    5416905416908748Dairy herd consulting services
    5416905416908748Economic consulting services
    5416905416908748Energy consulting services
    5416905416908999Entomology consulting services
    5416905416908999Geochemical consulting services
    5416905416900781Horticultural consulting services
    5416905416908748Hydrology consulting services
    5416905416908748Livestock breeding consulting services
    5416905416907819Motion picture consulting services
    5416905416908999Nuclear energy consulting services
    5416905416908999Physics consulting services
    5416905416908748Radio consulting services
    5416905416908748Safety consulting services
    5416905416908748Security consulting services


     5417 Scientific Research and Development Services

    This industry group comprises establishments engaged in conducting original investigation undertaken on a systematic basis to gain new knowledge (research) and/or the application of research findings or other scientific knowledge for the creation of new or significantly improved products or processes (experimental development). The industries within this industry group are defined on the basis of the domain of research; that is, on the scientific expertise of the establishment.

     54171 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences

    See industry description for 541710 below.

     541710 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, and other allied subjects.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    541710541710 Agriculture research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Bacteriological research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Biology research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Biotechnology research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Botany research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Cancer research laboratories or services
    541710541710 Cerebral palsy research laboratories or services
    541710541710 Chemical research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Computer and related hardware research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Dental research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Electronic research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Engineering research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Entomological research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Environmental research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Experimental farms
    541710541710 Fisheries research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Food research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Forestry research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Genetics research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Geological research and development laboratories or services
    5417105417103764Guided missile and space vehicle engine research and development
    5417105417103769Guided missile and space vehicle parts (except engines) research and development
    541710541710 Health research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Industrial research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Life sciences research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Mathematics research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Medical research and development laboratories or services
    5417105417108733Observatories, research institutions
    541710541710 Oceanographic research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Physical science research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Physics research and development laboratories or services
    541710541710 Veterinary research and development laboratories or services


     54172 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities

    See industry description for 541720 below.

     541720 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analyses in cognitive development, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, and other social science and humanities research.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in marketing research are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    541720541720 Archeological research and development services
    541720541720 Behavioral research and development services
    541720541720 Business research and development services
    541720541720 Cognitive research and development services
    541720541720 Demographic research and development services
    541720541720 Economic research and development services
    541720541720 Humanities research and development services
    541720541720 Language research and development services
    541720541720 Learning disabilities research and development services
    541720541720 Psychology research and development services
    541720541720 Social science research and development services
    541720541720 Sociological research and development services
    541720541720 Sociology research and development services


     5418 Advertising and Related Services

     54181 Advertising Agencies

    See industry description for 541810 below.

     541810 Advertising Agencies

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio and television, or other media. These establishments are organized to provide a full range of services (i.e., through in-house capabilities or subcontracting), including advice, creative services, account management, production of advertising material, media planning, and buying (i.e., placing advertising).

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418105418107311Advertising agencies
    5418105418107311Advertising agency consulting services


     54182 Public Relations Agencies

    See industry description for 541820 below.

     541820 Public Relations Agencies

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in designing and implementing public relations campaigns. These campaigns are designed to promote the interests and image of their clients. Establishments providing lobbying, political consulting, or public relations consulting are included in this industry.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418205418208743Lobbying services
    5418205418208743Lobbyists' offices
    5418205418208743Political consulting services
    5418205418208743Public relations agencies
    5418205418208743Public relations consulting services
    5418205418208743Public relations services


     54183 Media Buying Agencies

    See industry description for 541830 below.

     541830 Media Buying Agencies

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418305418307319Media buying agencies
    5418305418307319Media buying services


     54184 Media Representatives

    See industry description for 541840 below.

     541840 Media Representatives

    This industry comprises establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling media time or space for media owners.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418405418407313Advertising media representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Magazine advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Media advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Media representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Newspaper advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Publishers' advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Radio advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
    5418405418407313Television advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)


     54185 Display Advertising

    See industry description for 541850 below.

     541850 Display Advertising

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and designing public display advertising, campaign materials, such as printed, painted, or electronic displays, and/or placing such displays on indoor or outdoor billboards and panels, or on or within transit vehicles or facilities, shopping malls, retail (in-store) displays, and other display structures or sites.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418505418507312Advertising services, indoor or outdoor display
    5418505418507319Advertising, aerial
    5418505418507312Billboard display advertising services
    5418505418507319Bus card advertising services
    5418505418507312Bus display advertising services
    5418505418507319Display advertising services
    5418505418507312Indoor display advertising services
    5418505418507312Outdoor display advertising services
    5418505418507312Out-of-home media (i.e., display) advertising services
    5418505418507312Store display advertising services
    5418505418507319Subway card display advertising services
    5418505418507319Taxicab card advertising services
    5418505418507319Transit advertising services


     54186 Direct Mail Advertising

    See industry description for 541860 below.

     541860 Direct Mail Advertising

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) or specialties (e.g., key chains, magnets, pens with customized messages imprinted) by mail or other direct distribution; and/or (2) preparing advertising materials or specialties for mailing or other direct distribution. These establishments may also compile, maintain, sell, and rent mailing lists.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418605418607331Advertising material preparation services for mailing or other direct distributio
    5418605418607331Direct mail advertising services
    5418605418607331Direct mail or other direct distribution advertising campaign services


     54187 Advertising Material Distribution Services

    See industry description for 541870 below.

     541870 Advertising Material Distribution Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the direct distribution or delivery of advertisements (e.g., circulars, coupons, handbills) or samples. Establishments in this industry use methods, such as delivering advertisements or samples door-to-door, placing flyers or coupons on car windshields in parking lots, or handing out samples in retail stores.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418705418707319Advertising material (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) direct distribution service
    5418705418707319Circular direct distribution services
    5418705418707319Coupon direct distribution services
    5418705418707389Directory, telephone, distribution on a contract basis
    5418705418707319Door-to-door distribution of advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, sample
    5418705418707319Flyer direct distribution (except direct mail) services
    5418705418707319Handbill direct distribution services
    5418705418707319Sample direct distribution services
    5418705418707389Telephone directory distribution services, door-to-door


     54189 Other Services Related to Advertising

    See industry description for 541890 below.

     541890 Other Services Related to Advertising

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, and marketing consulting services).

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    • Creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in newspapers, television, or other media--are classified in Industry 541810, Advertising Agencies;
    • Designing and implementing public relations campaigns--are classified in Industry 541820, Public Relations Agencies;
    • Purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it directly to advertising agencies or individual companies--are classified in Industry 541830, Media Buying Agencies;
    • Selling media time or space for media owners as independent representatives--are classified in Industry 541840, Media Representatives;
    • Providing display advertising services (except aerial)--are classified in Industry 541850, Display Advertising;
    • Providing direct distribution or delivery (e.g., door-to-door, windshield placement) of advertisements or samples--are classified in Industry 541870, Advertising Material Distribution Services;
    • Providing direct mail advertising services--are classified in Industry 541860, Direct Mail Advertising;
    • Publishing newspapers or operating television stations or on-line information services--are classified in Sector 51, Information; and
    • Providing marketing consulting services--are classified in U.S. Industry 541613, Marketing Consulting Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5418905418905199Advertising specialty (e.g., keychain, magnet, pen) distribution services
    5418905418907389Demonstration services, merchandise
    5418905418907389Display lettering services
    5418905418907389Mannequin decorating services
    5418905418907389Sign lettering and painting services
    5418905418907389Welcoming services (i.e., advertising services)
    5418905418907389Window dressing or trimming services, store


     5419 Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

    This industry group comprises establishments engaged in professional, scientific, and technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; and advertising and related services).

     54191 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling

    See industry description for 541910 below.

     541910 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in systematically gathering, recording, tabulating, and presenting marketing and public opinion data.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419105419108732Broadcast media rating services
    5419105419108732Marketing analysis services
    5419105419108732Marketing research services
    5419105419108732Opinion research services
    5419105419108732Political opinion polling services
    5419105419108732Public opinion polling services
    5419105419108732Public opinion research services
    5419105419108732Sampling services, statistical


     54192 Photographic Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital photography services. These establishments may specialize in a particular field of photography, such as commercial and industrial photography, portrait photography, and special events photography. Commercial or portrait photography studios are included in this industry.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

     541921 Photography Studios, Portrait

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments known as portrait studios primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital portrait photography services.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419215419217221Passport photography services
    5419215419217221Photography services, portrait (e.g., still, video)
    5419215419217221Photography studios, portrait
    5419215419217221Portrait photography services
    5419215419217221Portrait photography studios
    5419215419217221School photography (i.e., portrait photography) services
    5419215419217221Video photography services, portrait
    5419215419217221Video taping services, special events (e.g., birthdays, weddings)
    5419215419217221Wedding photography services


     541922 Commercial Photography

    This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial photography services, generally for advertising agencies, publishers, and other business and industrial users.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419225419227335Commercial photography services
    5419225419228099Medical photography services
    5419225419227335Photographers specializing in aerial photography
    5419225419227335Photography services, commercial
    5419225419227335Photography studios, commercial
    5419225419227335Video taping services for legal depositions


     54193 Translation and Interpretation Services

    See industry description for 541930 below.

     541930 Translation and Interpretation Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in translating written material and interpreting speech from one language to another and establishments primarily engaged in providing sign language services.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    • Providing transcription services--are classified in Industry 561410, Document Preparation Services;
    • Providing real-time (i.e., simultaneous) closed captioning services for live television performances, at meetings and conferences--are classified in U.S. Industry 561492, Court Reporting and Stenotype Services;
    • Providing film or tape closed captioning services--are classified in U.S. Industry 512191, Teleproduction and Other Postproduction Services; and
    • Analyzing handwriting--are classified in Industry 541990, All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419305419307389Interpretation services, language
    5419305419307389Language interpretation services
    5419305419307389Language services (e.g., interpretation, sign, translation)
    5419305419307389Language translation services
    5419305419307389Sign language services
    5419305419307389Speech (i.e., language) interpretation services
    5419305419307389Translation services, language


     54194 Veterinary Services

    See industry description for 541940 below.

     541940 Veterinary Services

    This industry comprises establishments of licensed veterinary practitioners primarily engaged in the practice of veterinary medicine, dentistry, or surgery for animals; and establishments primarily engaged in providing testing services for licensed veterinary practitioners.

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419405419400742Animal hospitals
    5419405419400742Disease testing services, veterinary
    5419405419400741Hospitals, animal
    541940541940 Internists' offices, veterinary
    5419405419408734Laboratory testing services, veterinary
    5419405419400741Livestock inspecting and testing services, veterinary
    5419405419400741Livestock veterinary services
    5419405419400742Pet hospitals
    5419405419400742Small animal veterinary services
    5419405419400742Surgeons' offices, veterinary
    5419405419400741Surgery services, veterinary
    5419405419400742Testing laboratories, veterinary
    5419405419408734Testing services for veterinarians
    5419405419400741Vaccination services, veterinary
    5419405419400742Veterinarians' offices
    5419405419400741Veterinarians' practices
    5419405419400741Veterinary clinics
    541940541940 Veterinary services
    5419405419400741Veterinary services, livestock
    5419405419400742Veterinary services, pets and other animal specialties
    5419405419408734Veterinary testing laboratories


     54199 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

    See industry description for 541990 below.

     541990 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

    This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the provision of professional, scientific, or technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; advertising and related services; market research and public opinion polling; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; and veterinary services).

    Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

    • Providing legal services--are classified in Industry Group 5411, Legal Services;
    • Providing accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services--are classified in Industry Group 5412, Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services;
    • Providing architectural, engineering, and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5413, Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services;
    • Providing specialized design services--are classified in Industry Group 5414, Specialized Design Services;
    • Providing computer systems design and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5415, Computer Systems Design and Related Services;
    • Providing management, scientific, and technical consulting services--are classified in Industry Group 5416, Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services;
    • Providing scientific research and development services--are classified in Industry Group 5417, Scientific Research and Development Services;
    • Providing advertising and related services--are classified in Industry Group 5418, Advertising and Related Services;
    • Providing marketing research and public opinion polling--are classified in Industry 541910, Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling;
    • Providing photographic services--are classified in Industry 54192, Photographic Services;
    • Providing translation and interpretation services--are classified in Industry 541930, Translation and Interpretation Services;
    • Providing veterinary services--are classified in Industry 541940, Veterinary Services; and
    • Providing real estate appraisal services--are classified in Industry 531320, Offices of Real Estate Appraisers.
    No change 1997 to 2002 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
    2002
    NAICS
    1997
    NAICS
    1987
    SIC
    Corresponding Index Entries
    5419905419907389Appraisal (except real estate) services
    5419905419907389Arbitration and conciliation services (except by attorney, paralegal)
    5419905419907389Business brokers (except real estate brokers)
    5419905419907389Commodity inspection services
    5419905419907299Consumer credit counseling services
    5419905419907299Credit repair (i.e., counseling) services, consumer
    5419905419907389Estate assessment (i.e., appraisal) services
    5419905419907389Handwriting analysis services
    5419905419907389Handwriting expert services
    5419905419904499Marine surveyor (i.e., ship appraiser) services
    5419905419907389Mediation product services (except by lawyer, attorney, paralegal offices, family
    5419905419908999Meteorological services
    5419905419907389Outplacement services
    5419905419907389Patent broker services (i.e., patent marketing services)
    5419905419907389Patrolling (i.e., visual inspection) of electric transmission or gas lines
    5419905419907389Pipeline inspection (i.e., visual) services
    5419905419907389Power line inspection (i.e., visual) services
    5419905419907389Quantity surveyor services
    5419905419908999Weather forecasting services