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23 Construction

 23 Construction

The Sector as a Whole

The construction sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of buildings or engineering projects (e.g., highways and utility systems). Establishments primarily engaged in the preparation of sites for new construction and establishments primarily engaged in subdividing land for sale as building sites also are included in this sector.

Construction work done may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. Activities of these establishments generally are managed at a fixed place of business, but they usually perform construction activities at multiple project sites. Production responsibilities for establishments in this sector are usually specified in (1) contracts with the owners of construction projects (prime contracts) or (2) contracts with other construction establishments (subcontracts).

Establishments primarily engaged in contracts that include responsibility for all aspects of individual construction projects are commonly known as general contractors, but also may be known as design-builders, construction managers, turnkey contractors, or (in cases where two or more establishments jointly secure a general contract) joint-venture contractors. Construction managers that provide oversight and scheduling only (i.e., agency) as well as construction managers that are responsible for the entire project (i.e., at risk) are included as general contractor type establishments. Establishments of the "general contractor type" frequently arrange construction of separate parts of their projects through subcontracts with other construction establishments.

Establishments primarily engaged in activities to produce a specific component (e.g., masonry, painting, and electrical work) of a construction project are commonly known as specialty trade contractors. Activities of specialty trade contractors are usually subcontracted from other construction establishments but, especially in remodeling and repair construction, the work may be done directly for the owner of the property.

Establishments primarily engaged in activities to construct buildings to be sold on sites that they own are known as operative builders, but also may be known as speculative builders or merchant builders. Operative builders produce buildings in a manner similar to general contractors, but their production processes also include site acquisition and securing of financial backing. Operative builders are most often associated with the construction of residential buildings. Like general contractors, they may subcontract all or part of the actual construction work on their buildings.

There are substantial differences in the types of equipment, work force skills, and other inputs required by establishments in this sector. To highlight these differences and variations in the underlying production functions, this sector is divided into three subsectors.

Subsector 236, Construction of Buildings, comprises establishments of the general contractor type and operative builders involved in the construction of buildings. Subsector 237, Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction, comprises establishments involved in the construction of engineering projects. Subsector 238, Specialty Trade Contractors, comprises establishments engaged in specialty trade activities generally needed in the construction of all types of buildings.

Force account construction is construction work performed by an enterprise primarily engaged in some business other than construction for its own account and use, using employees of the enterprise. This activity is not included in the construction sector unless the construction work performed is the primary activity of a separate establishment of the enterprise. The installation and the ongoing repair and maintenance of telecommunications and utility networks is excluded from construction when the establishments performing the work are not independent contractors. Although a growing proportion of this work is subcontracted to independent contractors in the Construction Sector, the operating units of telecommunications and utility companies performing this work are included with the telecommunications or utility activities.

236 Construction of Buildings

 236 Construction of Buildings

The Construction of Buildings subsector comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction of buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. The on-site assembly of precut, panelized, and prefabricated buildings and construction of temporary buildings are included in this subsector. Part or all of the production work for which the establishments in this sector have responsibility may be subcontracted to other construction establishments usually specialty trade contractors.

Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the types of buildings they construct. This classification reflects variations in the requirements of the underlying production processes.

 2361 Residential Building Construction

 23611 Residential Building Construction

This Industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction or remodeling and renovation of single-family and multifamily residential buildings. Included in this industry are residential housing general contractors (i.e., new construction, remodeling or renovating existing residential structures), operative builders and remodelers of residential structures, residential project construction management firms, and residential design-build firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

 236115 New Single-Family Housing Construction (except Operative Builders)

This U.S. industry comprises general contractor establishments primarily responsible for the entire construction of new single-family housing, such as single-family detached houses and town houses or row houses where each housing unit (1) is separated from its neighbors by a ground-to-roof wall and (2) has no housing units constructed above or below. This industry includes general contractors responsible for the on-site assembly of modular and prefabricated houses. Single-family housing design-build firms and single-family construction management firms acting as general contractors are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2361152332101521Cabin construction general contractors
2361152332101521Condominium, single-family, construction general contractors
2361152332108741Construction management, single-family building
2361152332101521Cottage construction general contractors
2361152332101521Custom builders (except operative), single-family home
2361152332101521Duplex (i.e., side-by-side) construction general contractors
2361152332101521Home builders (except operative), single-family
2361152332101521Housing, single-family, construction general contractors
2361152332101521Log home construction general contractors
2361152332101521Low income housing, single-family, construction general contractors
2361152332101521Modular house assembly on site by general contractors
2361152332101521Panelized single-family house assembly on site by general contractors
2361152332101521Precut single-family housing assembly on site by general contractors
2361152332101521Residential construction, single-family, general contractors
2361152332101521Row house (i.e., single-family type) construction general contractors
2361152332101521Single-family attached housing construction general contractors
2361152332101521Single-family detached housing construction general contractors
2361152332101521Single-family homes built on land owned by others, general contractors of
2361152332101521Single-family house construction by general contractors
2361152332101521Time-share condominium construction general contractors
2361152332101521Town house (i.e., single-family type) construction by general contractors
2361152332101521Vacation home, single-family, construction by general contractors


 236116 New Multifamily Housing Construction (except Operative Builders)

This U.S. industry comprises general contractor establishments responsible for the construction of new multifamily residential housing units (e.g., high-rise, garden, and town house apartments and condominiums where each unit is not separated from its neighbors by a ground-to-roof wall). Multifamily design-build firms and multifamily housing construction management firms acting as general contractors are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2361162332201522Apartment building construction general contractors
2361162332201522Condominium, multifamily, construction general contractors
2361162332208741Construction management, multifamily building
2361162332201522Cooperative apartment, construction general contractors
2361162332201522Custom builders (except operative), multifamily buildings
2361162332201522Duplex (i.e., one unit above the other), construction general contractors
2361162332201522Garden apartment construction general contractors
2361162332201522High-rise apartment construction general contractors
2361162332201522Home builders (except operative), multifamily
2361162332201522Housing, multifamily, construction general contractors
2361162332201522Low income housing, multifamily, construction general contractors
2361162332201522Low-rise apartment construction general contractors
2361162332201522Multifamily building construction general contractors
2361162332201522Panelized multifamily housing assembled on site by general contractors
2361162332201522Precut multifamily housing assembled on site by general contractors
2361162332201522Residential construction, multifamily, general contractors


 236117 New Housing Operative Builders

This U.S. industry comprises operative builders primarily responsible for the entire construction of new houses and other residential buildings, single-family and multifamily, on their own account for sale. Operative builders are also known as speculative or merchant builders.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2361172332201531Apartment building operative builders
2361172332101531Cabin operative builders
2361172332201531Condominium operative builders
2361172332201531Cooperative apartment operative builders
2361172332101531Cottage operative builders
2361172332201531Custom builders, operative builders, multifamily buildings
2361172332101531Custom builders, operative builders, single-family home
2361172332201531Duplex operative builders
2361172332201531Garden apartment operative builders
2361172332201531High-rise apartment operative builders
2361172332101531Home builders, operative
2361172332101531Housing construction, merchant builder
2361172332101531Housing construction, operative builder
2361172332101531Log home operative builders
2361172332 1531Low income housing construction operative builders
2361172332201531Low-rise apartment operative builders
2361172332 1531Merchant builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), residential
2361172332101531Modular housing, residential, assembled on site by operative builders
2361172332201531Multifamily building operative builders
2361172332 1531Operative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), residential
2361172332101531Operative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), single-family housing
2361172332101531Panelized housing, residential, assembled on site by operative builders
2361172332201531Panelized multifamily housing assembled on site by operative builders
2361172332101531Precut housing, residential, assembled on site by operative builders
2361172332 1531Residential operative builders
2361172332 1531Row house construction operative builders
2361172332101531Single-family housing built on own land for sale (i.e., operative builders)
2361172332101531Single-family housing construction operative builders
2361172332201531Speculative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), multifamily housing
2361172332 1531Speculative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), residential
2361172332101531Speculative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), single-family housin
2361172332201531Time-share condominium construction operative builders
2361172332 1531Town house construction operative builders
2361172332101531Vacation housing construction operative builders


 236118 Residential Remodelers

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the remodeling construction (including additions, alterations, reconstruction, maintenance and repair work) of houses and other residential buildings, single-family and multifamily. Included in this industry are remodeling general contractors, operative remodelers, remodeling design-build firms, and remodeling project construction management firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
23611823322015 Addition, alteration and renovation (i.e., construction), multifamily building
2361182332 15 Addition, alteration and renovation (i.e., construction), residential building
23611823321015 Addition, alteration and renovation of single-family dwellings
2361182332201522Addition, alteration and renovation, multifamily building, general contractors
2361182332201531Addition, alteration and renovation, multifamily building, operative builders
2361182332 152 Addition, alteration and renovation, residential building, general contractors
2361182332 1531Addition, alteration and renovation, residential building, operative builders
2361182332101521Addition, alteration and renovation, single-family housing, general contractors
2361182332101531Addition, alteration and renovation, single-family housing, operative builders
2361182332 15 Building, residential, addition, alteration and renovation
236118 8741Construction management, residential remodeling
2361182332201522Fire and flood restoration, multifamily building, general contractors
2361182332101521Fire and flood restoration, single-family housing, general contractors
2361182332 152 Handyman construction service, residential building
23611823321015 Home improvement (e.g., adding on, remodeling, renovating)
2361182332201522Home improvement (e.g., adding on, remodeling, renovating), multifamily building,
2361182332201531Home improvement (e.g., adding on, remodeling, renovating), multifamily building,
2361182332101521Home improvement (e.g., adding on, remodeling, renovating), single-family housing
2361182332101531Home improvement (e.g., adding on, remodeling, renovating), single-family housing
23611823321015 Home renovation
236118 Porch construction, residential-type
2361182332201522Remodeling and renovating general contractors, multifamily building
2361182332 1522Remodeling and renovating general contractors, residential
2361182332101521Remodeling and renovating general contractors, single-family housing
2361182332 1531Remodeling and renovating operative builders
23611823321015 Remodeling and renovating single-family housing
2361182332 15 Remodeling and renovating, residential building
2361182332101521Sun-room additions, residential


 2362 Nonresidential Building Construction

This industry group comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of nonresidential buildings. This industry group includes nonresidential general contractors, nonresidential operative builders, nonresidential design-build firms, and nonresidential project construction management firms.

 23621 Industrial Building Construction

See industry description for 236210 below.

 236210 Industrial Building Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of industrial buildings (except warehouses). The construction of selected additional structures, whose production processes are similar to those for industrial buildings (e.g., incinerators, cement plants, blast furnaces, and similar nonbuilding structures), is included in this industry. Included in this industry are industrial building general contractors, industrial building operative builders, industrial building design-build firms, and industrial building construction management firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2362102333101541Acid plant construction
2362102333101531Addition, alteration and renovation operative builders, industrial building (exce
2362102333101541Addition, alteration and renovation, general contractors, industrial building (ex
23621023331015 Addition, alteration and renovation, industrial building (except warehouses)
2362102333101541Aluminum plant construction
2362102333101541Ammonium plant construction
2362102333101541Assembly plant construction
2362102349301629Blast furnace construction
2362102333101541Cannery construction
2362102349301629Cement plant construction
2362102349301629Chemical (except petrochemical process type) plant construction
2362102333101541Clean room construction
2362102333108741Construction management, industrial building (except warehouses)
2362102333101541Factory construction
2362102333101541Fish processing plant construction
2362102333101541Food processing plant construction
2362102333101541Foundry construction
2362102349301629Furnace (i.e., industrial plant structure) construction
2362102349901629Garbage disposal plant construction
2362102349301629Incinerator, mass-burn type, construction
2362102349301629Incinerator, municipal waste disposal, construction
23621023331015 Industrial building (except warehouses) construction
2362102333101541Industrial building (except warehouses) construction, general contractors
2362102333101531Industrial building (except warehouses) construction, operative builders
2362102349301629Kiln construction
2362102333101541Manufacturing building construction
2362102349301629Materials recovery facility construction
2362102349301629Metal processing plant construction
2362102349301629Mine loading and discharging station construction
2362102333101541Motor vehicle assembly plant construction
2362102333101531Operative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), industrial building (e
2362102333101541Ore and metal refinery construction
2362102349301629Oven, industrial plant, construction
2362102333101541Paper or pulp mill construction
2362102333101541Pharmaceutical manufacturing plant construction
2362102333101541Prefabricated industrial building (except warehouses) erection
2362102333101541Printing plant construction
2362102349901629Refuse disposal plant construction
2362102333101541Smelter construction
2362102333101531Speculative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), industrial building
2362102333101541Steel mill construction
2362102333101541Textile mill construction
2362102349301629Tipple, mining, construction
2362102349301629Washery, mining, construction
2362102349901629Waste disposal plant (except sewage treatment) construction


 23622 Commercial and Institutional Building Construction

See industry description for 236220 below.

 236220 Commercial and Institutional Building Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of commercial and institutional buildings and related structures, such as stadiums, grain elevators, and indoor swimming pools. This industry includes establishments responsible for the on-site assembly of modular or prefabricated commercial and institutional buildings. Included in this industry are commercial and institutional building general contractors, commercial and institutional building operative builders, commercial and institutional building design-build firms, and commercial and institutional building project construction management firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2362202333201542Addition, alteration and renovation general contractors, commercial and instituti
2362202333201541Addition, alteration and renovation general contractors, commercial warehouse
2362202333201522Addition, alteration and renovation general contractors, hotel and motel
2362202333101541Addition, alteration and renovation general contractors, industrial warehouse
2362202333201531Addition, alteration and renovation operative builders, commercial and institutio
2362202333201531Addition, alteration and renovation operative builders, commercial warehouse
2362202333201531Addition, alteration and renovation operative builders, hotel and motel
2362202333101531Addition, alteration and renovation operative builders, industrial warehouse
23622023332015 Addition, alteration and renovation, commercial and institutional building
23622023332015 Addition, alteration and renovation, commercial warehouse
23622023332015 Addition, alteration and renovation, hotel and motel
23622023331015 Addition, alteration and renovation, industrial warehouse
2362202333201542Administration building construction
2362202333201542Airport building construction
2362202333201542Airport terminal construction
2362202333201542Amusement facility construction
2362202333201542Animal shelter and clinic construction
2362202333201542Arena construction
2362202333201542Armory construction
2362202333201542Athletic court, indoor, construction
2362202333201542Auditorium construction
2362202333201542Bank building construction
2362202333201542Barber shop construction
2362202332201522Barrack construction
2362202333201542Beauty salon construction
2362202333201542Broadcasting station construction
2362202332201522Bunkhouse construction
2362202333201542Bus shelter construction
2362202333201542Bus terminal construction
2362202333201542Casino construction
2362202333201542Cinema construction
2362202333201542Civic center construction
2362202333201542Clinic construction
2362202333101541Cold storage plant construction
23622023332015 Commercial building construction
2362202333201542Commercial building construction general contractors
2362202333201531Commercial building construction operative builders
2362202333208741Construction management, commercial and institutional building
2362202332201522Dormitory construction
2362202333101541Dry cleaning plant construction
2362202333201542Educational building construction
2362202333201542Farm building construction
2362202333201542Fire and flood restoration of commercial and institutional buildings
2362202333201542Fire station construction
2362202333201542Garage and service station, commercial, construction
2362202333101541Grain elevator construction
2362202333201542Handyman construction service, commercial and institutional building
2362202333201542Hangar construction
2362202333201542Health and athletic club construction
2362202333201542Hospital construction
2362202333201522Hotel construction
2362202333201542Ice rink, indoor, construction
2362202359901799Indoor swimming pool construction
23622023332015 Institutional building construction
2362202333201542Institutional building construction general contractors
2362202333201531Institutional building construction operative builders
2362202333201542Jail construction
23622023332015 Laboratory construction
2362202333201542Library construction
2362202333201542Logging camp construction
2362202333201542Mausoleum (i.e., building) construction
2362202333201542Monument (i.e., building) construction
2362202333201522Motel construction
2362202333201542Museum construction
2362202333201542Office building construction
2362202333201531Operative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), commercial and institu
2362202333201542Parking garage construction
2362202333201542Penitentiary construction
2362202333201542Post office construction
2362202333201542Prefabricated commercial building erection
2362202333201542Prefabricated institutional building erection
2362202333201542Prison construction
2362202333201541Public warehouse construction
2362202333201542Radio and television broadcast studio construction
2362202333201542Radio station construction
2362202333201542Railway station construction
23622023332015 Recreational facility building construction
2362202333201542Religious building (e.g., church, synagogue, mosque, temple) construction
2362202333201542Restaurant construction
2362202333201542Salon construction
2362202333201542School building construction
2362202333201542Service station construction
2362202333201542Shopping center construction
2362202333201542Shopping mall construction
2362202333201542Silo construction
2362202333201531Speculative builders (i.e., building on own land, for sale), commercial and insti
2362202333201542Stadium and arena construction
2362202333101541Storage elevator construction
2362202333201542Store construction
2362202359901799Swimming pool, indoor, construction
2362202333201542Television station construction
2362202333201542Tennis court, indoor, construction
2362202333201542Theater construction
2362202333201542Truck terminal construction
2362202333 1541Warehouse construction (e.g., commercial, industrial, manufacturing, private)
2362202333201541Warehouse, commercial and institutional, construction
2362202333101541Warehouse, industrial, construction


237 Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

 237 Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

The Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction subsector comprises establishments whose primary activity is the construction of entire engineering projects (e.g., highways and dams), and specialty trade contractors, whose primary activity is the production of a specific component for such projects. Specialty trade contractors in Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction generally are performing activities that are specific to heavy and civil engineering construction projects and are not normally performed on buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs.

Specialty trade activities are classified in this subsector if the skills and equipment present are specific to heavy or civil engineering construction projects. For example, specialized equipment is needed to paint lines on highways. This equipment is not normally used in building applications so the activity is classified in this subsector. Traffic signal installation, while specific to highways, uses much of the same skills and equipment that are needed for electrical work in building projects and is therefore classified in Subsector 238, Specialty Trade Contractors.

Construction projects involving water resources (e.g., dredging and land drainage) and projects involving open space improvement (e.g., parks and trails) are included in this subsector. Establishments whose primary activity is the subdivision of land into individual building lots usually perform various additional site-improvement activities (e.g., road building and utility line installation) and are included in this subsector.

Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the types of structures that they construct. This classification reflects variations in the requirements of the underlying production processes.

 2371 Utility System Construction

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of distribution lines and related buildings and structures for utilities (i.e., water, sewer, petroleum, gas, power, and communication). All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of utility systems (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, power plants, and refineries) are included in this industry group.

 23711 Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction

See industry description for 237110 below.

 237110 Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of water and sewer lines, mains, pumping stations, treatment plants and storage tanks. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to water and sewer line and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of water and sewer networks (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, water treatment plants, and sewage treatment plants) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in constructing marine facilities (e.g., ports), flood control structures, dams, or hydroelectric power generation facilities are classified in Industry 237990, Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction.
2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2371102349101623Aqueduct construction
2371102358101781Artesian well construction
2371102358101781Capping of water wells
2371102349908741Construction management, water and sewage treatment plant
2371102349108741Construction management, water and sewer line
2371102349101623Distribution line, sewer and water, construction
2371102358101781Drilling water wells (except water intake wells in oil and gas fields)
2371102349101623Fire hydrant installation
2371102358101781Geothermal drilling
2371102349901629Irrigation system construction
2371102349901629Lagoon, sewage treatment construction
2371102349101623Pumping station, water and sewage system, construction
2371102349901629Reservoir construction
2371102349101623Sanitary sewer construction
2371102349101623Sewage collection and disposal line construction
2371102349901629Sewage disposal plant construction
2371102349901629Sewage treatment plant construction
2371102349101623Sewer construction
2371102349101623Sewer main, pipe and connection, construction
2371102349101623Storm sewer construction
2371102349101623Utility line (i.e., sewer, water), construction
2371102349901629Water desalination plant construction
2371102349901629Water filtration plant construction
2371102349101623Water main and line construction
2371102349101623Water pumping or lift station construction
2371102349101623Water system storage tank and tower construction
2371102349901629Water treatment plant construction
2371102358101781Water well drilling, digging, boring or sinking (except water intake wells in oil
2371102358101781Water well pump and well piping system installation


 23712 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction

See industry description for 237120 below.

 237120 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of oil and gas lines, mains, refineries, and storage tanks. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of oil and gas networks (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, and refineries) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in building chemical plants (except petrochemical) and similar process or batch facilities are classified in Industry 236210, Industrial Building Construction.
2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2371202349101623Compressor, metering and pumping station, gas and oil pipeline, construction
2371202349108741Construction management, oil and gas pipeline
2371202349308741Construction management, oil refinery and petrochemical complex
2371202349101623Corrosion protection, underground pipeline and oil storage tank
2371202349101623Distribution line, gas and oil, construction
2371202349101623Gas main construction
2371202131121389Gathering line, gas and oil field, construction
2371202349101623Natural gas pipeline construction
2371202349301629Natural gas processing plant construction
2371202349101623Oil and gas field distribution line construction
2371202349101623Oil pipeline construction
2371202349301629Oil refinery construction
2371202349301629Petrochemical plant construction
2371202349301629Petroleum refinery construction
2371202349101623Pipe lining (except thermal insulating) contractors
2371202131121389Pipeline construction on oil and gas field gathering lines to point of distributi
2371202349101623Pipeline rehabilitation contractors
2371202349101623Pipeline wrapping contractors
2371202349101623Pipeline, gas and oil, construction
2371202349101623Pumping station, gas and oil transmission, construction
2371202349301629Refinery, petroleum, construction
2371202349101623Service line, gas and oil, construction
2371202349101623Storage tank, natural gas or oil, tank farm or field, construction


 23713 Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction

See industry description for 237130 below.

 237130 Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of power lines and towers, power plants, and radio, television, and telecommunications transmitting/receiving towers. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to power and communication line and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of power and communication networks (e.g., transmitting towers, substations, and power plants) are included.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2371302349301629Alternative energy (e.g., geothermal, ocean wave, solar, wind) structure construc
2371302349201623Cable laying (e.g., cable television, electricity, marine, telephone), including
2371302349201623Cellular phone tower construction
2371302349301629Co-generation plant construction
2371302349201623Communication antenna construction
2371302349201623Communication tower construction
2371302349208741Construction management, power and communication transmission line
2371302349301629Electric light and power plant (except hydroelectric) construction
2371302349201623Electric power transmission line and tower construction
2371302349301629Electricity generating plant (except hydroelectric) construction
2371302349201623Fiber optic cable transmission line construction
2371302349201623Microwave relay tower construction
2371302349301629Nuclear power plant construction
2371302349201623Pole line construction
2371302349201623Power line stringing
2371302349301629Power plant (except hydroelectric) construction
2371302349201623Radio transmitting tower construction
2371302349201623Satellite receiving station construction
2371302349301629Solar power structure construction
2371302349201623Substation and switching station, power transmission line, construction
2371302349201623Telephone line construction
2371302349201623Telephone line stringing
2371302349201623Television transmitting tower construction
2371302349301629Thermal power plant construction
2371302349201623Tower, power distribution and communication, construction
2371302349301629Transformer station and substation, electric power, construction
2371302349201623Transmission and distribution line construction
2371302349201623Underground cable (e.g., cable television, electricity, telephone) laying
2371302349201623Utility line (i.e., communication, electric power), construction
2371302349301629Wind power structure construction


 2372 Land Subdivision

 23721 Land Subdivision

See industry description for 237210 below.

 237210 Land Subdivision

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in servicing land and subdividing real property into lots, for subsequent sale to builders. Servicing of land may include excavation work for the installation of roads and utility lines. The extent of work may vary from project to project. Land subdivision precedes building activity and the subsequent building is often residential, but may also be commercial tracts and industrial parks. These establishments may do all the work themselves or subcontract the work to others. Establishments that perform only the legal subdivision of land are not included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2372102331106552Building lot subdividing
2372102331106552Land (except cemeteries) subdividers
2372102331106552Land acquisition, assembling and subdividing
2372102331106552Land subdividing and utility installation (e.g., electric, sewer and water)
2372102331106552Real estate (except cemeteries) subdividers
2372102331106552Real property (except cemeteries) subdivision
2372102331106552Subdividers, real estate
2372102331106552Subdividing real estate


 2373 Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction

 23731 Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction

See industry description for 237310 below.

 237310 Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of highways (including elevated), streets, roads, airport runways, public sidewalks, or bridges. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to highway, street, and bridge construction (e.g., installing guardrails on highways).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2373102341201622Abutment construction
2373102341101611Airport runway construction
2373102352101721Airport runway line painting (e.g., striping)
2373102341101611Asphalt paving (i.e., highway, road, street, public sidewalk)
2373102341201622Bridge approach construction
2373102341201622Bridge construction
2373102341201622Bridge decking construction
2373102341201622Causeway construction
2373102341101611Concrete paving (i.e., highway, road, street, public sidewalk)
2373102341108741Construction management, highway, road, street and bridge
2373102341101611Culverts, highway, road and street, construction
2373102341101611Curbs and street gutters, highway, road and street, construction
2373102341201622Elevated highway construction
2373102341101611Grading, highway, road, street and airport runway
2373102341101611Guardrail construction
2373102341101611Highway construction
2373102352101721Highway line painting
2373102341101611Logging road construction
2373102341101611Oil field road construction
2373102341201622Overpass construction
2373102352101721Painting lines on highways, streets and bridges
2373102352101721Painting traffic lanes or parking lots
2373102352101721Parking lot marking and line painting
2373102341101611Parkway construction
2373102341101611Pavement, highway, road, street, bridge or airport runway, construction
2373102341101611Pothole filling, highway, road, street or bridge
2373102341101611Repair, highway, road, street, bridge or airport runway
2373102341101611Resurfacing, highway, road, street, bridge or airport runway
2373102341101611Road construction
2373102352101721Runway, airport, line painting (e.g., striping)
2373102341101611Sidewalk, public, construction
2373102341101611Sign erection, highway, roads street or bridge
2373102341101611Street construction
2373102341101611Surfacing, highway, road, street, bridge or airport runway
2373102341101611Tarring roads
2373102352101721Traffic lane painting
2373102341201622Trestle construction
2373102341201622Underpass construction


 2379 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

 23799 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

See industry description for 237990 below.

 237990 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in heavy and engineering construction projects (excluding highway, street, bridge, and distribution line construction). The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to engineering construction projects (excluding highway, street, bridge, distribution line, oil and gas structure, and utilities building and structure construction). Construction projects involving water resources (e.g., dredging and land drainage), development of marine facilities, and projects involving open space improvement (e.g., parks and trails) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2379902359901799Anchored earth retention contractors
2379902349901629Athletic field (except stadium) construction
2379902349901629Avalanche protection, construction
2379902349901629Breakwater construction
2379902349901629Bridle path construction
2379902349901629Bulkhead wall construction
2379902349901629Caisson (i.e., marine or pneumatic structures) construction
2379902349901629Canal construction
2379902349901629Channel construction
2379902349901629Cofferdam construction
2379902349908741Construction management, dam
2379902349908741Construction management, marine structure
2379902349908741Construction management, mass transit
2379902349908741Construction management, outdoor recreation facility
2379902341208741Construction management, tunnel
2379902349901629Cribbing (i.e., shore protection), construction
2379902349901629Dam construction
2379902349901629Dike and other flood control structure construction
2379902349901629Dock construction
2379902349901629Drainage canal and ditch construction
2379902349901629Drainage project construction
2379902349901629Dredging (e.g., canal, channel, ditch, waterway)
2379902349901629Drive-in movie facility construction
2379902359901799Earth retention system construction
2379902349901629Earth-filled dam construction
2379902349901629Electricity generating plant, hydroelectric, construction
2379902349901629Embankment construction
2379902349901629Farm drainage tile installation
2379902349901629Flood control project construction
2379902349901629Floodway canal and ditch construction
2379902349901629Gabion construction
2379902349901629Golf course construction
2379902349901629Harbor construction
2379902349901629Horizontal drilling (e.g., underground cable, pipeline, sewer installation)
2379902349901629Hydroelectric generating facility construction
2379902349901629Ice rink (except indoor) construction
2379902349901629Jetty construction
2379902349901629Land drainage contractors
2379902349901629Levee construction
2379902349901629Light rail system construction
2379902349901629Lock and waterway construction
2379902349901629Marine construction
2379902349901629Microtunneling contractors
2379902349901629Missile facility construction
2379902349901629Monorail construction
2379902349901629Nuclear waste disposal site construction
2379902349901629Outdoor recreation facility construction
2379902349901629Park and recreational open space improvement construction
2379902349901629Pier construction
2379902349901629Pile driving, marine
2379902349901629Pipe-jacking contractors
2379902349901629Play ground construction
2379902349901629Port facility construction
2379902349901629Power plant, hydroelectric, construction
2379902349901629Railroad construction
2379902349901629Railway construction (e.g., interlocker, roadbed, signal, track)
2379902349901629Railway roadbed construction
2379902349901629Recreation area, open space, construction
2379902349901629Recreational vehicle park construction
2379902349901629Retaining walls, anchored (e.g., with piles, soil nails, tieback anchors), constr
2379902349901629Revetment construction
2379902359901799Riprap installation
2379902349901629Rock removal, underwater
2379902349901629Seawall, wave protection, construction
2379902349901629Sediment control system construction
2379902349901629Ski tow construction
2379902349901629Spillway, floodwater, construction
2379902349901629Sports field construction
2379902349901629Streetcar line construction
2379902349901629Subway construction
2379902349901629Tennis courts, outdoor, construction
2379902349901629Timber removal, underwater
2379902349901629Trail construction
2379902349901629Trenching, underwater
2379902341201622Tunnel construction
2379902349901629Wharf construction


238 Specialty Trade Contractors

 238 Specialty Trade Contractors

The Specialty Trade Contractors subsector comprises establishments whose primary activity is performing specific activities (e.g., pouring concrete, site preparation, plumbing, painting, and electrical work) involved in building construction or other activities that are similar for all types of construction but that are not responsible for the entire project. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs. The production work performed by establishments in this subsector is usually subcontracted from establishments of the general contractor type or operative builders but, especially in remodeling and repair construction, work also may be done directly for the owner of the property. Specialty trade contractors usually perform most of their work at the construction site, although they may have shops where they perform prefabrication and other work. Establishments primarily engaged in preparing sites for new construction are also included in this subsector.

There are substantial differences in types of equipment, work force skills, and other inputs required by specialty trade contractors. Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the underlying production function for the specialty trade in which they specialize. Throughout the Specialty Trade Contractors subsector, establishments commonly provide both the parts and labor required to complete work. For example, electrical contractors supply the current-carrying and noncurrent-carrying wiring devices that are required to install a circuit. Plumbing, Heating and Air-Conditioning contractors also supply the parts required to complete a contract.

Establishments that specialize in activities primarily related to heavy and civil engineering construction that are not normally performed on buildings, such as the painting of lines on highways are classified in Subsector 237, Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction.

Establishments that are primarily engaged in selling construction materials are classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade, or Sector 44-45, Retail Trade, based on the characteristics of the selling unit.

 2381 Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the specialty trades needed to complete the basic structure (i.e., foundation, frame, and shell) of buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

 23811 Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure Contractors

See industry description for 238110 below.

 238110 Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring and finishing concrete foundations and structural elements. This industry also includes establishments performing grout and shotcrete work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381102357101771Chimney, concrete, construction
2381102357101771Concrete finishing
2381102357101771Concrete floor surfacing
2381102357101771Concrete pouring
2381102357101771Concrete pumping (i.e., placement)
2381102357101771Concrete repair
2381102357101771Concrete resurfacing
2381102357101771Footing and foundation concrete contractors
2381102357101771Foundation, building, poured concrete, contractors
2381102357101771Grouting (i.e., reinforcing with concrete)
2381102357101771Gunite contractors
2381102357101771Gunning shotcrete
2381102357101771Mud-jacking contractors
2381102357101771Retaining wall (except anchored earth), poured concrete, construction
2381102357101771Shotcrete contractors


 23812 Structural Steel and Precast Concrete Contractors

See industry description for 238120 below.

 238120 Structural Steel and Precast Concrete Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in: (1) erecting and assembling structural parts made from steel or precast concrete (e.g., steel beams, structural steel components, and similar products of precast concrete); and/or (2) assembling and installing other steel construction products (e.g., steel rods, bars, rebar, mesh, and cages) to reinforce poured-in-place concrete. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in pouring concrete at the construction site for building foundations or structural elements are classified in Industry 238110, Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure Contractors.
2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381202359101791Balcony, precast concrete, installation
2381202359101791Concrete product (e.g., structural precast, structural prestressed) installation
2381202359101791Concrete reinforcement placement
2381202359101791Curtain wall, precast concrete, installation
2381202359101791Erecting structural steel
2381202359101791Iron work, structural, contractors
2381202359101791Placing and tying reinforcing rod at a construction site
2381202359101791Precast concrete panel, slab, or form installation
2381202359101791Prestressed concrete beam, slab or other component installation
2381202359101791Rebar contractors
2381202359101791Reinforcing rod, bar, mesh and cage installation
2381202359101791Reinforcing steel contractors
2381202359101791Stairway, precast concrete, installation
2381202359101791Steel reinforcing contractors
2381202359101791Structural steel contractors


 23813 Framing Contractors

See industry description for 238130 below.

 238130 Framing Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in structural framing and sheathing using materials other than structural steel or concrete. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381302355101751Building framing (except structural steel)
2381302355101751Carpentry, framing
2381302355101751Ceiling beam, wood, installation
2381302355101751Foundation, building, wood, contractors
2381302355101751Framework, house, contractors
2381302355101751Framing contractors
2381302355101751House framing
2381302355101751Permanent wood foundation installation
2381302355101751Post frame contractors
2381302355101751Prefabricated wood frame component (e.g., trusses) installation
2381302355101751Roof truss installation
2381302355101751Sheathing, wood, installation
2381302355101751Steel framing contractors
2381302355101751Stud wall (e.g., wood, steel) installation
2381302355101751Wall component (i.e., exterior, interior), prefabricated, installation
2381302355101751Wood frame component (e.g., truss) fabrication on site


 23814 Masonry Contractors

See industry description for 238140 below.

 238140 Masonry Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in masonry work, stone setting, brick laying, and other stone work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381402354101741Brick veneer, installation
2381402354101741Bricklaying contractors
2381402354101741Cement block laying
2381402354101741Chimney, brick, block or stone, contractors
2381402354101741Cinder block installation
2381402354101741Concrete block laying
2381402354101741Field stone (i.e., masonry) installation
2381402354101741Fireplace, masonry, installation
2381402354101741Foundation (e.g., brick, block, stone), building, contractors
2381402354101741Glass block laying
2381402354101741Glass unit (i.e., glass block) masonry
2381402354101741Granite, exterior, contractors
2381402354101741Marble, granite and slate, exterior, contractors
2381402354101741Masonry contractors
2381402354101741Masonry pointing, cleaning or caulking
2381402354101741Refractory brick contractors
2381402354101741Retaining wall, masonry (i.e., block, brick, stone), construction
2381402354101741Slate (i.e., masonry) contractors
2381402354101741Stonework (i.e., masonry) contractors
2381402354201771Stucco contractors
2381402354101741Tuck pointing contractors


 23815 Glass and Glazing Contractors

See industry description for 238150 below.

 238150 Glass and Glazing Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing glass panes in prepared openings (i.e., glazing work) and other glass work for buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381502359201793Curtain wall, glass, installation
2381502359201793Decorative glass and mirror installation
2381502359201793Glass cladding (i.e., curtain wall), installation
2381502359201799Glass coating and tinting (except automotive) contractors
2381502359201793Glass installation (except automotive) contractors
2381502359201793Glass partitions, installation
2381502359201793Glazing contractors
2381502359201793Hermetically sealed window unit, commercial type, installation
2381502359201793Mirror installation
2381502359201793Stained glass installation
2381502359201793Window pane or sheet installation


 23816 Roofing Contractors

See industry description for 238160 below.

 238160 Roofing Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in roofing. This industry also includes establishments treating roofs (i.e., spraying, painting, or coating) and installing skylights. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381602356101761Asphalt roof shingle installation
2381602356101761Copper roofing installation
2381602356101761Corrugated metal roofing installation
2381602356101761Galvanized iron roofing installation
2381602356101761Low slope roofing installation
2381602356101761Painting, spraying, or coating, roof
2381602356101761Roll roofing installation
2381602356101761Roof membrane installation
2381602356101761Roof painting, spraying, or coating
2381602356101761Roofing contractors
2381602356101761Roofing, built-up tar and gravel, installation
2381602356101761Shake and shingle, roof, installation
2381602356101761Sheet metal roofing installation
2381602356101761Skylight installation
2381602356101761Solar reflecting coating, roof, application
2381602356101761Steep slope roofing installation
2381602356101761Treating roofs (by spraying, painting or coating)


 23817 Siding Contractors

See industry description for 238170 below.

 238170 Siding Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing siding of wood, aluminum, vinyl or other exterior finish material (except brick, stone, stucco, or curtain wall). This industry also includes establishments installing gutters and downspouts. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381702356101761Aluminum siding installation
2381702356101761Downspout, gutter, and gutter guard installation
2381702356101761Eavestrough installation
2381702356101761Fascia and soffit installation
2381702356101761Flashing contractors
2381702356101761Gutter and downspout contractors
2381702356101761Gutters, seamless roof, formed and installed on site
2381702356101761Ice apron, roof, installation
2381702356101761Metal siding installation
2381702356101761Siding (e.g., vinyl, wood, aluminum) installation
2381702356101761Siding contractors
2381702356101761Vinyl siding, soffit and fascia, installation
2381702356101761Wood siding, installation


 23819 Other Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors

See industry description for 238190 below.

 238190 Other Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building foundation and structure trades work (except poured concrete, structural steel, precast concrete, framing, masonry, glass and glazing, roofing, and siding). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2381902359901799Awning installation
2381902359901799Balcony, metal, installation
2381902359901799Cathodic protection, installation
2381902359901799Concrete form contractors
2381902359101791Curtain wall, metal, installation
2381902359901799Deck and grate (except roof), metal, installation
2381902359901799Decorative steel and wrought iron work installation
2381902359901799Epoxy application contractors
2381902359901799Erection and dismantling, poured concrete form
2381902359901799Falsework construction
2381902359901799Fire escape installation
2381902359901799Fireproofing buildings
2381902359901799Forming contractor
2381902359901799Forms for poured concrete, erecting and dismantling
2381902359101791Metal furring contractors
2381902359901799Ornamental metal work installation
2381902359901799Shutter installation
2381902359901799Stairway, metal, installation
2381902359101791Store front, metal or metal frame, installation
2381902359901799Welding, on site, contractors


 2382 Building Equipment Contractors

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing or servicing equipment that forms part of a building mechanical system (e.g., electricity, water, heating, and cooling). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. Contractors installing specialized building equipment, such as elevators, escalators, service station equipment, and central vacuum cleaning systems are also included.

 23821 Electrical Contractors

See industry description for 238210 below.

 238210 Electrical Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing and servicing electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical contractors included in this industry may include both the parts and labor when performing work. Electrical contractors may perform new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2382102353101731Airport runway lighting contractors
2382102353101731Alarm system (e.g., fire, burglar), electric, installation only
2382102353101731Audio equipment installation (except automotive) contractors
2382102353101731Building automation system installation contractors
2382102353101731Burglar alarm system, electric, installation only
2382102353101731Cable splicing, electrical or fiber optic
2382102353101731Cable television hookup contractors
2382102353101731Communication equipment installation
2382102353101731Computer and network cable installation
2382102351101711Control system (e.g., environmental, humidity, temperature) installation
2382102353101731Electric contracting
2382102353101731Electric power control panel and outlet installation
2382102353101731Electrical appliance installation
2382102353101731Electrical contractors
2382102353101731Electrical wiring contractors
2382102353101731Electrical work
2382102353101731Electrician
2382102353101731Electronic containment fencing for pets, installation
2382102353101731Electronic control installation and service
2382102353101731Electronic control system installation
2382102351101711Environmental control system installation
2382102353101731Fiber optic cable (except transmission lines) installation
2382102353101731Fire alarm system, electric, installation only
2382102353101731Highway, street and bridge lighting and electrical signal installation
2382102353101731Home automation system installation
2382102353101731Home theater installation
2382102351101711Humidity control system installation
2382102353101731Intercommunication (intercom) system installation
2382102353101731Lighting system installation
2382102353101731Low voltage electrical work
2382102353101731Private driveway or parking area lighting contractors
2382102353101731Public address system installation
2382102353101731Railroad signalling equipment installation
2382102353101731Security and fire system, installation only
2382102353101731Smoke detection system, installation only
2382102353101731Snow melting cable, electric, installation
2382102353101731Sound equipment installation
2382102353101731Surveillance system, installation only
2382102353101731Telecommunications equipment and wiring (except transmission line) installation c
2382102353101731Telephone equipment and building wiring installation
2382102353101731Telephone installation contractors
2382102351101711Temperature control system installation
2382102353101731Traffic signal installation
2382102353101731Tunnel lighting contractors


 23822 Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Contractors

See industry description for 238220 below.

 238220 Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing and servicing plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning equipment. Contractors in this industry may provide both parts and labor when performing work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2382202351101711Air system balancing and testing
2382202351101711Air vent installation
2382202351101711Air-conditioning system (except window) installation
2382202351101711Bathroom plumbing fixture and sanitary ware installation
2382202351101711Blower and fan, cooling and dry heating, installation
2382202351107699Boiler chipping, cleaning and scaling
2382202351101711Boiler, heating, installation
2382202351101711Central air-conditioning equipment installation
2382202351101711Central cooling equipment and piping installation
2382202351101711Central heating equipment and piping installation
2382202351101711Chilled water system installation
2382202351101711Chimney liner installation
2382202351101711Commercial freezer installation
2382202351101711Commercial refrigeration system installation
2382202359101791Cooling tower installation
2382202351101711Drain, waste and vent system installation
2382202351101711Drinking fountain installation
2382202351101711Dry heating equipment installation
2382202351101711Duct work (e.g., cooling, dust collection, exhaust, heating, ventilation) install
2382202359501796Dust collecting and bag house equipment installation
2382202351101711Exhaust system (e.g., kitchens, industrial work areas) installation
2382202351101711Fire sprinkler system installation
2382202351101711Fireplace, natural gas, installation
2382202351101711Fuel oil burner installation
2382202351101711Furnace conversion (i.e., from one fuel to another)
2382202351101711Furnace humidifier installation
2382202351101711Furnace installation
2382202351101711Furnace, forced air, installation
2382202351101711Gas fitting contractor
2382202351101711Gas line installation, individual hookup, contractors
2382202351101711Heat pump installation
2382202351101711Heating and cooling duct work installation
2382202351101711Heating and ventilation system component (e.g., air registers, diffusers, filters
2382202351101711Heating boiler installation
2382202351101711Heating contractors
2382202351101711Heating equipment installation
2382202351101711Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) contractors
2382202351101711Hot water heating system installation
2382202351101711Hot water tank installation
2382202351101711Household oil storage tank installation
2382202351101711HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) contractors
2382202351101711Hydronic heating system installation
2382202351101711Industrial process piping installation
2382202351101711Kitchen sink and hardware installation
2382202351101711Lawn sprinkler system installation
2382202351101711Mechanical contractors
2382202351101711Natural gas piping installation
2382202351101711Oil burner installation
2382202351101711Pipe fitting contractors
2382202351101711Plumbers
2382202351101711Plumbing and heating contractors
2382202351101711Plumbing contractors
2382202351101711Plumbing fixture installation
2382202351101711Process piping installation
2382202351101711Pumping system, water, installation
2382202351101711Radiant floor heating equipment installation
2382202351101711Refrigeration system (e.g., commercial, industrial, scientific) installation
2382202351101711Sanitary ware installation
2382202359501796Scrubber, air purification, installation
2382202351101711Sewer hook-up and connection, building
2382202351101711Sheet metal duct work installation
2382202351101711Snow melting system (e.g., hot water, glycol) installation
2382202351101711Solar heating equipment installation
2382202351101711Sprinkler system, building, installation
2382202351101711Steam fitting contractors
2382202351101711Sump pump installation
2382202351101711Ventilating contractors
2382202351101711Warehouse refrigeration system installation
2382202351101711Warm air heating system installation
2382202351101711Water heater installation
2382202351101711Water meter installation
2382202351101711Water softener installation
2382202351101711Water system balancing and testing contractors


 23829 Other Building Equipment Contractors

See industry description for 238290 below.

 238290 Other Building Equipment Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing or servicing building equipment (except electrical; plumbing; heating, cooling, or ventilation equipment). The repair and maintenance of miscellaneous building equipment is included in this industry. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2382902359901799Antenna, household-type, installation
2382902359501796ATM (automated teller machine) installation
2382902359501796Automated and revolving door installation
2382902359501796Automatic gate (e.g., garage, parking lot) installation
2382902359901799Boiler and pipe insulation installation
2382902359901799Boiler covering installation
2382902359901799Bowling alley equipment installation
2382902359901799Church bell and tower clock installation
2382902359501796Commercial kitchen food preparation equipment (e.g., mixers, ovens, stoves) insta
2382902359501796Commercial-type door installation
2382902359501796Conveyor system installation
2382902359501796Deodorization (i.e., air filtration) system installation
2382902359501796Dismantling large-scale machinery and equipment
2382902359501796Door, commercial- or industrial-type, installation
2382902359901799Duct insulation installation
2382902359501796Dumbwaiter installation
2382902359501796Elevator installation
2382902359501796Escalator installation
2382902359501796Garage door, commercial- or industrial-type, installation
2382902359901799Gasoline pump, service station, installation
2382902359501796Hoisting and placement of large-scale apparatus
2382902359501796Incinerators, building equipment type, installation
2382902359901799Insulation, boiler, duct and pipe, installation
2382902359901799Lightning protection equipment (e.g., lightning rod) installation
2382902359901799Lightning rod and conductor installation
2382902359501796Machine rigging
2382902359501796Machinery and equipment, large-scale, installation
2382902359501796Materials handling equipment installation
2382902359901799Mechanical equipment insulation
2382902359501796Millwrights
2382902359901799Motor vehicle garage and service station mechanical equipment (e.g., gasoline pum
2382902359501796Moving sidewalk installation
2382902359501796Overhead door, commercial- or industrial-type, installation
2382902359901799Pipe covering
2382902359901799Pipe, duct and boiler insulation
2382902359501796Pneumatic conveyance system installation
2382902359501796Power boiler, installation only
2382902359501796Power generating equipment installation
2382902359501796Revolving door installation
2382902359501796Rigging large-scale equipment
2382902359501796Rubber door installation
2382902359907622Satellite dish, household-type, installation
2382902359501796Vacuum cleaning system, built-in, installation
2382902359501796Vault, safe and banking machine installation
2382902359901799Vehicle lift installation
2382902359501796Vending machine installation
2382902359901799Water pipe insulating


 2383 Building Finishing Contractors

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the specialty trades needed to finish buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs.

 23831 Drywall and Insulation Contractors

See industry description for 238310 below.

 238310 Drywall and Insulation Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drywall, plaster work, and building insulation work. Plaster work includes applying plain or ornamental plaster, and installation of lath to receive plaster. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383102354201742Acoustical ceiling tile and panel installation
2383102354201742Acoustical foam (i.e., sound barrier) installation
2383102354201742Attic space insulating
2383102354201742Blown-in insulation (e.g., cellulose, vermiculite) installation
2383102354201742Building insulation contractors
2383102354201742Ceiling tile installation
2383102354201742Cellulosic fiber insulation installation
2383102354201742Drop ceiling installation
2383102354201742Drywall contractors
2383102354201742Drywall finishing (e.g., sanding, spackling, stippling, taping, texturing)
2383102354201742Drywall hanging
2383102354201742Drywall installation
2383102354201742Exterior insulation finish system installation
2383102354201742Fabric wall system, noise insulating, installation
2383102354201742Finishing drywall contractors
2383102354201742Foam insulation installation
2383102354201743Fresco (i.e., decorative plaster finishing) contractors
2383102354201742Glass fiber insulation installation
2383102354201742Gypsum board installation
2383102354201742Insulation contractors
2383102354201742Lathing contractors
2383102354201742Mineral wool insulation installation
2383102354201742Panel or rigid board insulation installation
2383102354201742Plastering (i.e., ornamental, plain) contractors
2383102354201742Polystyrene board insulation installation
2383102354201742Roof insulation contractor
2383102354201742Soundproofing contractors
2383102354201742Styrofoam insulation installation
2383102354201742Suspended ceiling installation
2383102354201742Taping and finishing drywall
2383102354201742Urethane foam insulation application
2383102354201742Wall cavity and attic space insulation installation


 23832 Painting and Wall Covering Contractors

See industry description for 238320 below.

 238320 Painting and Wall Covering Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in interior or exterior painting or interior wall covering. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383202352101721Bridge painting
2383202352101721Electrostatic painting, on site, contractors
2383202352101721Engineering structure (e.g., oil storage tank, water tower) painting
2383202352101721House painting
2383202352101799Paint and wallpaper stripping
2383202352101721Painting (except roof) contractors
2383202352101721Painting and wallpapering
23832023521017 Paperhanging and removal contractors
23832023521017 Paperhanging or removal contractors
2383202352101721Rustproofing (except automotive)
2383202352101721Ship painting contractors
23832023521017 Wall covering or removal contractors
23832023521017 Wallpaper hanging and removal contractors
2383202352101799Wallpaper stripping
2383202352101721Whitewashing contractors


 23833 Flooring Contractors

See industry description for 238330 below.

 238330 Flooring Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the installation of resilient floor tile, carpeting, linoleum, and hard wood flooring. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383302355201752Access flooring installation
2383302355201752Asphalt flooring, installation only
2383302355201752Carpet, installation only
2383302355201752Computer flooring installation
2383302355201752Fireproof flooring installation
2383302355201752Floor laying, scraping, finishing and refinishing
2383302355201752Floor tile and sheets, installation only
2383302355201752Hardwood flooring, installation only
2383302355201752Linoleum, installation only
2383302355201752Parquet flooring installation
2383302355201752Resilient floor tile or sheet (e.g., linoleum, rubber, vinyl), installation only
2383302355201752Resurfacing hardwood flooring
2383302355201752Vinyl flooring contractors
2383302355201752Wood floor finishing (e.g., coating, sanding)
2383302355201752Wood flooring, installation only


 23834 Tile and Terrazzo Contractors

See industry description for 238340 below.

 238340 Tile and Terrazzo Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in setting and installing ceramic tile, stone (interior only), and mosaic and/or mixing marble particles and cement to make terrazzo at the job site. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383402354301743Ceramic tile installation
2383402354301743Granite, interior, installation
2383402354301743Mantel, marble or stone, installation
2383402354301743Marble, granite and slate, interior, contractors
2383402354301743Mosaic work
2383402354301743Slate, interior, installation
2383402354301743Stone flooring installation
2383402354301743Terrazzo and tile refinishing
2383402354301743Terrazzo contractors
2383402354301743Tile (except resilient) contractors
2383402354301743Tile (except resilient) laying and setting


 23835 Finish Carpentry Contractors

See industry description for 238350 below.

 238350 Finish Carpentry Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in finish carpentry work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383502355101751Aluminum door and window, residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Built-in wood cabinets constructed on site
2383502355101751Cabinet work performed at the construction site
2383502355101751Cabinetry work performed at the construction site
2383502355101751Cabinets, wood built-in, constructed on site
2383502355101751Carpenters (except framing)
2383502355101751Carpentry work (except framing)
2383502355101799Counter top, residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Deck construction, residential-type
2383502355101751Door and window frame construction
2383502355101751Door and window, prefabricated, installation
2383502355101751Door, folding, installation
2383502355101751Finish carpentry
2383502355101751Garage door, residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Hermetically sealed window unit, residential-type, installation
23835023551017 Kitchen cabinets and counters, constructed on site
2383502355101751Millwork installation
2383502355101751Molding or trim, wood or plastic, installation
2383502355101751Overhead door, residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Paneling installation
2383502355101751Prefabricated kitchen and bath cabinet, residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Prefabricated sash and door installation
2383502355101751Shelving, wood, constructed on site
2383502355101751Ship joinery contractors
2383502355101751Stairway, wood, installation
2383502355101751Trim and finish carpentry contractors
2383502355101751Window and door (residential-type) of any material, prefabricated, installation
2383502355101751Window installation
2383502355101751Window, metal-frame residential-type, installation
2383502355101751Window, wood, installation


 23839 Other Building Finishing Contractors

See industry description for 238390 below.

 238390 Other Building Finishing Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building finishing trade work (except drywall, plaster and insulation work; painting and wall covering work; flooring work; tile and terrazzo work; and finish carpentry work). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2383902359901799Bath tub refinishing on site
2383902359901799Bleacher installation
2383902359901799Building fixture and fitting (except mechanical equipment) installation
2383902359901799Caulking (i.e., waterproofing) contractors
2383902356101761Ceiling, metal, installation
2383902359901799Closet organizer system installation
2383902359901799Coating concrete structures with plastics
2383902359901799Concrete coating, glazing or sealing
2383902359901799Countertop and cabinet, metal (except residential-type), installation
2383902359901799Dampproofing contractors
2383902359901799Drapery fixture (e.g., hardware, rods, tracks) installation
2383902359901761Fabrication, metal cabinet or countertop, on site
2383902359901799Foundation dampproofing (including installing rigid foam insulation)
2383902359901799Laboratory furniture and equipment installation
2383902359901799Lead lining walls for x-ray room contractors
2383902359901799Modular furniture system attachment and installation
2383902359901799Office furniture, modular system, installation
2383902356101761Panel, metal, installation
2383902356101761Partition (e.g., office, washroom), metal, installation
2383902359901799Partition, moveable and/or demountable, installation
2383902356101761Shelving, metal, constructed on site
2383902359901799Spectator seating installation
2383902359901799Trade show exhibit installation and dismantling contractors
2383902359901799Ventilated wire shelving (i.e., closet organizing-type) installation
2383902359901799Vibration isolation contractors
2383902359901799Waterproofing contractors
2383902359901799Weather stripping installation
2383902359901799Weatherproofing concrete
2383902359901799Window shade and blind installation


 2389 Other Specialty Trade Contractors

 23891 Site Preparation Contractors

See industry description for 238910 below.

 238910 Site Preparation Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in site preparation activities, such as excavating and grading, demolition of buildings and other structures, septic system installation, and house moving. Earth moving and land clearing for all types of sites (e.g., building, nonbuilding, mining) is included in this industry. Establishments primarily engaged in construction equipment rental with operator (except cranes) are also included.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2389102349907353Aerial or picker truck, construction, rental with operator
2389102359301794Backfilling, construction
2389102349907353Backhoe rental with operator
2389102349901629Blast hole drilling (except mining)
2389102359401795Blasting, building demolition
2389102349901629Blasting, construction site
2389102359301794Boring, for building construction
2389102359401795Building demolition
2389102349907353Bulldozer rental with operator
2389102359301794Caisson (i.e., drilled building foundations) construction
2389102351101711Cesspool construction
2389102359401795Concrete breaking and cutting for demolition
2389102349907353Construction equipment (except crane) rental with operator
2389102359901799Core drilling and test boring for construction
2389102349907353Crawler tractor rental with operator
2389102349901629Cutting new rights of way
2389102359401795Demolition contractor
2389102359401795Demolition, building and structure
2389102359901799Dewatering contractors
2389102359301794Digging foundations
2389102359301794Dirt moving for construction
2389102359401795Dismantling engineering structures (e.g., oil storage tank)
2389102351101711Drainage system (e.g., cesspool, septic tank) installation
2389102359301794Drilled pier (i.e., for building foundations) contractors
2389102359301794Drilled shaft (i.e., drilled building foundations) construction
2389102351101711Dry well construction
2389102349907353Equipment rental (except crane), construction, with operator
2389102349901629Excavating, earthmoving or land clearing, agricultural
238910 Excavating, earthmoving or land clearing, mining (except overburden removal at op
2389102359301794Excavating, earthmoving, or land clearing contractors
2389102359301794Excavation contractors
2389102359301794Foundation digging (i.e., excavation)
2389102359301794Foundation drilling contractors
2389102359301794Grading construction sites
2389102359301794Grave excavation contractors
2389102359301794Ground thawing for construction site digging
2389102359401795House demolishing
2389102359401795House razing
2389102359401795Hydrodemolition (i.e., demolition with pressurized water) contractors
2389102349901629Land clearing
2389102349901629Land leveling contractors
2389102349901629Line slashing or cutting (except maintenance)
2389102349907353Machinery, construction (except cranes), rental with operator
238910 Mine site preparation and related construction activities, construction contracto
2389102359301794Pile driving, building foundation
2389102359301794Piling (i.e., bored, cast-in-place, drilled), building foundation, contractors
2389102349907353Power shovel, construction, rental with operator
2389102349901629Power, communication and pipe line right of way clearance (except maintenance)
2389102349901629Right of way cutting (except maintenance)
2389102351101711Septic system contractors
2389102351101711Septic tank and weeping tile installation
2389102349901629Soil compacting
2389102359901799Soil test drilling
2389102359901799Test boring for construction
2389102349901629Trenching (except underwater)
2389102359401795Underground tank (except hazardous material) removal
2389102351101711Weeping tile installation
2389102359401795Wrecking, building or other structure


 23899 All Other Specialty Trade Contractors

See industry description for 238990 below.

 238990 All Other Specialty Trade Contractors

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in specialized trades (except foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors; building equipment contractors; building finishing contractors; and site preparation contractors). The specialty trade work performed includes new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--

2002 NAICS to 1997 NAICS 2002 NAICS to 1987 SIC 1997Economic Census Bridge Between 1997 NAICS and SIC
2002
NAICS
1997
NAICS
1987
SIC
Corresponding Index Entries
2389902359901799Artificial turf installation
2389902357101771Asphalt coating and sealing, residential and commercial parking lot and driveway
2389902357101771Asphalting, residential and commercial driveway and parking area
2389902359901799Billboard erection
2389902357101771Blacktop work, residential and commercial driveway and parking area
2389902359901799Boat lift installation
2389902357101771Brick driveway contractors
2389902357101771Brick paver (e.g., driveways, patios, sidewalks) installation
2389902359901799Cable splicing (except electrical or fiber optic)
2389902359901799Chain link fence installation
2389905617201799Cleaning building interiors during and immediately after construction
2389905617201799Cleaning new building interiors immediately after construction
2389902357101771Concrete patio construction
2389902357101771Concrete paving, residential and commercial driveway and parking area
2389902359901799Concrete sawing and drilling (except demolition)
2389902359901799Construction elevator (i.e., temporary use during construction) erection and dism
2389902359901799Construction site cleanup contractors
2389902349907353Crane rental with operator
2389902357101771Culvert, concrete, residential and commercial paved area
2389902357101771Curb and gutter construction, residential and commercial driveway and parking are
2389902357101771Driveway paving or sealing
2389902359901799Fence installation (except electronic containment fencing for pets)
2389902359901799Fencing contractors (except electronic containment fencing for pets)
2389902359901799Flagpole installation
2389902359901799House moving (i.e., raising from one site, moving, and placing on a new foundatio
2389902357101771Interlocking brick and block installation
2389902359901799Mail box units, outdoor, multiple box-type, erection
2389902359901799Manufactured (mobile) home set up and tie down
2389902357101771Parking lot paving and sealing
2389902357101771Patio construction
2389902357101771Paver, brick (e.g., driveway, patio, sidewalk), installation
2389902357101771Paving, residential and commercial driveway and parking lot
2389902359901799Playground equipment installation
2389902359901799Pole (e.g., telephone) removal
2389902359901799Posthole digging
2389902359901799Radon gas alleviation contractors
2389902359901799Safety net system, erecting and dismantling at construction site
2389902359901799Sandblasting, building exterior
2389902359901799Scaffold erecting and dismantling
2389902359901799Shoring, construction
2389902357101771Sidewalk construction, residential and commercial
2389902359901799Sign (except on highways, streets, bridges and tunnels) erection
2389902359901799Sign, building, erection
2389902359901799Statue erection
2389902359901799Steeplejack work
2389902357101771Street, interlocking brick (i.e., not mortared), installation
2389902359901799Swimming pool screen enclosure construction
2389902359901799Swimming pool, outdoor, construction
2389902359901799Tank lining contractors
2389902359901799Turf, artificial, installation
2389902359901799Underpinning, construction